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157 Total Items
Florida
Abolishing Constitution Revision Commission
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 43.5%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing amendments to Section 5 of Article II and Sections 2 and 5 of Article XI of the State Constitution to abolish the Constitution Revision Commission.

 

Access to Public Records and Meetings
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 83.0%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective July 1, 1993, to grant public access to records and meetings of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the government, and other governmental entities; to allow the legislature to enact exemptions and rules; continuing existing exemptions until repealed; and to apply existing exemptions relating to records of other governmental entities to judicial and legislative records.

 

Ad Valorem Taxation
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 62.8%)

Topic Areas:
Business & Commerce | Economic Development | Local Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the October 7, 1980 Primary Runoff Election.

Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective upon approval, to allow counties and municipalities, after a referendum providing therefor, to grant ad valorem tax exemptions to new businesses and expansions of existing businesses, for certain improvements to real property and for certain tangible personal property, subject to definitions and limitations as provided by general law.


 

Ad Valorem Taxation
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 81.2%)

Topic Areas:
Local Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the October 7, 1980 Primary Runoff Election.

Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide, with respect to ad valorem taxes levied by cities, counties and special districts, a homestead exemption increase to $15,000 in 1980, $20,000 in 1981, and $25,000 in 1982 and thereafter. The increase is contingent upon assessment rolls being in compliance with constitutional assessment requirements and upon the continuation of those requirements. Authorizes the Legislature to provide ad valorem tax relief to renters on all ad valorem taxl levies. Allows relative ad valorem assessment levels to be used in appropriation of state funds to local governments. The amendment takes effect upon approval and applies to the assessment rolls and taxes levied thereon for the year 1980 and for each year thereafter.


 

Ad Valorem Taxation
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.4%)

Topic Areas:
Agriculture | Business & Commerce | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the October 7, 1980 Primary Runoff Election.

Proposing an amendment to Section 4 of Article VII of the State Constitution, effective January 1, 1981, to allow business inventories and livestock to be classified for tax purposes or exempted fromt taxation.


 

Ad Valorem Taxation of Government Leaseholds
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 67.9%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
[Referred to the ballot by the Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission]

Subjects leaseholds in government owned property entered into since 1968 to ad valorem taxation. All leaseholds in government owned property entered into prior to 1968, and subsequent renewal options and extensions provided in the initial lease, shall be taxed as intangible personal property.


 

Additional Homestead Exemption; Low-Income Seniors Who Maintain Long-Term Residency on Property; Equal to Assessed Value
Amendment 11
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 61.3% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Local Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to authorize the Legislature, by general law and subject to conditions set forth in the general law, to allow counties and municipalities to grant an additional homestead tax exemption equal to the assessed value of homestead property if the property has a just value less than $250,000 to an owner who has maintained permanent residency on the property for not less than 25 years, who has attained age 65, and who has a low household income as defined by general law.

 

Additional Homestead Tax Exemption
Amendment 3
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 68.5%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the constitution to authorize the Legislature to allow counties and municipalities to grant an additional homestead tax exemption not exceeding $25,000 to certain persons 65 years of age or older whose household income does not exceed $20,000.

 

Animal Cruelty Amendment: Limiting Cruel and Inhumane Confinement of Pigs during Pregnancy
Constitutional Amendment 10
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 55.0%)

Topic Areas:
Agriculture | Animal Rights/Hunting & Fishing

Summary: Click for Summary
Inhumane treatment of animals is a concern of Florida citizens; to prevent cruelty to animals and as recommended by The Humane Society of the United States, no person shall confine a pig during pregnancy in a cage, crate or other enclosure, or tether a pregnant pig, on a farm so that the pig is prevented from turning around freely, except for veterinary purposes and during the prebirthing period; provides definitions, penalties, and an effective date.

 

Appointment of Student Body President to Board of Governors of the State University System
Amendment 12
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 41.5% Unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Education: Higher Ed

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to replace the president of the Florida Student Association with the chair of the council of state university student body presidents as the student member of the Board of Governors of the State University System and to require that the Board of Governors organize such council of state university student body presidents.

 

Assessment of High Water Recharge Lands
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 67.1%)

Topic Areas:
Natural Resources | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that land producing high water recharge to Florida’s aquifers may be classified by general law and assessed solely on the basis of character or use.

 

Assessment of Working Waterfront Property Based Upon Current Use
Amendment 6
Election:
General

2008

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 70.6%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Referred by the Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission

Provides for assessment based upon use of land used predominantly for commercial fishing purposes; land used for vessel launches into waters that are navigable and accessible to the public; marinas and drystacks that are open to the public; and water-dependent marine manufacturing facilities, commercial fishing facilities, and marine vessel construction and repair facilities and their support activities, subject to conditions, limitations, and reasonable definitions specified by general law.


 

Authority of Attorney General to Appoint a Statewide Prosecutor
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1986

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 73.0%)

Topic Areas:
Criminal Justice | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposes to grant to the Attorney General authority to appoint a statewide prosecutor having concurrent jurisdiction with the state attorneys to prosecute multicircuit violations of the criminal laws of the state.

 

Authorizes Miami-Dade and Broward County Voters to Approve Slot Machines in Parimutuel Facilities
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 50.8%)

Topic Areas:
Gambling & Lotteries

Summary: Click for Summary
Authorizes Miami-Dade and Broward Counties to hold referenda on whether to authorize slot machines in existing, licensed parimutuel facilities (thoroughbred and harness racing, greyhound racing, and jai alai) that have conducted live racing or games in that county during each of the last two calendar years before effective date of this amendment. The Legislature may tax slot machine revenues, and any such taxes must supplement public education funding statewide. Requires implementing legislation.

 

Authorizing Amendments to Miami-Dade County Home Rule Charter by Special Law Approved by Referendum
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 47.6%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Local Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to Section 6 of Article VIII of the State Constitution to authorize amendments or revisions to the Miami-Dade County Home Rule Charter by special law approved by a vote of the electors of Miami-Dade County and to conform references to the county’s current name.

 

Authorizing Municipalities and Counties to Levy a One-Cent Sales Tax with Local Voter Approval
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 40.0%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
[Referred to the ballot by the Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission]

The proposal authorizes counties and municipalities to levy up to a one-cent sales tax, if approved by the voters of the county or municipality, to be used for local government services. The referendum vote shall be called for by an ordinance of the county or municipality, and the one-cent sales tax, if approved, shall be based on the state sales and use tax base as defined by the Legislature, with certain exceptions.


 

Balancing the Federal Budget
Referendum 1
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.9%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Federal Government

Summary: Click for Summary
A Nonbinding Referendum Calling for an Amendment to the United States Constitution

In order to stop the uncontrolled growth of our national debt and prevent excessive borrowing by the Federal Government, which threatens our economy and national security, should the United States Constitution be amended to require a balanced federal budget without raising taxes?


 

Ballot Access, Public Campaign Financing, and Election Process Revisions
Amendment 11
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.1%)

Topic Areas:
Elections | Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Finance

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Provides ballot access requirements for independent and minor party candidates cannot be greater than requirements for majority party candidates; allows all voters, regardless of party, to vote in any party’s primary election if the winner will have no general election opposition; provides public financing of campaigns for statewide candidates who agree to campaign spending limits; permits candidates for governor to run in primary elections without lieutenant governor; makes school board elections nonpartisan; corrects voting age.


 

Ban on Racing and Wagering on Dog Racing Amendment
Constitutional Revision 8
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.0%)

Topic Areas:
Animal Rights/Hunting & Fishing | Gambling & Lotteries

Summary: Click for Summary
The measures prohibits the racing of and wagering on greyhounds and other dogs after a specified date.

 

Basic Document
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 29.2%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution, generally described as the Basic Document, embracing the subject matter of Articles I (Declaration of Rights), II (General Provisions), III (Legislature), IV (Executive), V (Judiciary), VI (Suffrage and Elections), VIII (Local Government), X (Miscellaneous), XI (Amendments) and XII (Schedule), except for other revisions separately submitted for a vote on this ballot.


 

Basic Rights
Amendment 9
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 66.3%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Defines “natural persons,” who are equal before the law and who have inalienable rights, as “female and male alike;” provides that no person shall be deprived of any right because of national origin; changes “physical handicap” to “physical disability” as a reason that people are protected from being deprived of any right.


 

Bonds for Acquisition of Property for State Roads or for Constructing Bridges
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 57.2%)

Topic Areas:
Bond Measures | Transportation

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective upon adoption, to authorize the Legislature to provide for issuance by the state, without a vote of the electors, of bonds pledging the full faith and credit of the state, the proceeds of which are to be used to finance or refinance the cost of acquiring real property for state roads or for constructing bridges.

 

Bonds for Housing
Constitutional Amendment 2b
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 57.2%)

Topic Areas:
Bond Measures | Human Services

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the October 7, 1980 Primary Runoff Election.

Proposing the creation of Section 16 of Article VII and Section 18 of Article XII of the State Constitution to authorize the issuance of revenue bonds to finance and refinance housing and related facilities in Florida, secured primarily by pledged revenues at least equal to the annual bond payments.


 

Bonds for State Capital Projects
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 65.4%)

Topic Areas:
Bond Measures | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to specify the projects for which state general obligation bonds may be issued to provide an exception to the limit imposed on the total outstanding principal of such bonds, to allow such bonds to be combined for purposes of sale, to allow state revenue bonds to be payable from rents or fees paid from state tax revenues.

 

Casino Gambling
Constitutional Amendment 9
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 28.6%)

Topic Areas:
Education: PreK-12 | Gambling & Lotteries

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution; authorizing state regulated, privately owned gambling casinos, but only in a restricted, designated area of eastern Dade County and southern Broward County extending approximately 16 miles north of Government Cut along the oceanfront; providing for the support of free public schools and local law enforcement in the several counties.

 

Casino Gambling Authorized Subject To County Option
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1986

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 31.7%)

Topic Areas:
Gambling & Lotteries

Summary: Click for Summary
An amendment authorizing casino gambling in hotels of 500 rooms or more in counties where electors of a county have by initiative referendum approved casino gambling and the geographic boundaries for such casino gambling in their county; the legislature to enact such laws necessary to assure reasonable limitation, licensing, regulation and taxation of such casino gambling.

 

Changes and Improvements Not Affecting the Assessed Value of Residential Real Property
Amendment 3
Election:
General

2008

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 60.5%)

Topic Areas:
Energy & Electric Utilities | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Referred by the Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission

Authorizes the Legislature, by general law, to prohibit consideration of changes or improvements to residential real property which increase resistance to wind damage and installation of renewable energy source devices as factors in assessing the property’s value for ad valorem taxation purposes. Effective upon adoption, repeals the existing renewable energy source device exemption no longer in effect.


 

Civil Traffic Hearing Officers
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 70.5%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Authorizes the Legislature to establish a civil traffic hearing officer system to hear civil traffic offenses.

 

Conservation of Natural Resources and Creation of Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Amendment 5
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 72.3%)

Topic Areas:
Animal Rights/Hunting & Fishing | Natural Resources | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Requires adequate provision for conservation of natural resources; creates Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, granting it the regulatory and executive powers of the Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission and the Marine Fisheries Commission; removes legislature’s exclusive authority to regulate marine life and grants certain powers to new commission; authorizes bonds to continue financing acquisition and improvement of lands for conservation, outdoor recreation, and related purposes; restricts disposition of state lands designated for conservation purposes.


 

Constitution Revision Commission; Convening; Duties with Respect to Taxation and State Budgetary Matters
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1996

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 61.4%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | State Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to change from 1998 to 1997 the convening of the next Constitution Revision Commission, in conformity with the schedule previously established by the Florida Supreme Court. Removing the restriction upon the commission’s authority to examine matters relating to taxation or the state budgetary process that are otherwise to be reviewed by the Taxation and Budgetary Reform Commission every ten years.

 

Constitutional Amendments Proposed by Initiative
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 68.4%)

Topic Areas:
Elections-Initiative Process

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing amendments to the State Constitution to require the sponsor of a constitutional amendment proposed by citizen initiative to file the initiative petition with the Secretary of State by February 1 of the year of a general election in order to have the measure submitted to the electors for approval or rejection at the following November’s general election, and to require the Florida Supreme Court to render an advisory opinion addressing the validity of an initiative petition by April 1 of the year in which the amendment is to be submitted to the electors.

 

Consumer Rights Regarding Solar Energy Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

2016

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 50.8% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Energy & Electric Utilities | Environmental Protection

Summary: Click for Summary
Establishes a right under Florida’s constitution for consumers to own or lease solar equipment installed on their property to generate electricity for their own use. State and local governments shall retain their abilities to protect consumer rights and public health, safety and welfare, and to ensure that consumers who do not choose to install solar are not required to subsidize the costs of backup power and electric grid access to those who do

 

Declaration of Rights
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 43.1%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to provide that no person will be deprived of any right because of sex.


 

Departments of Veterans Affairs and Elderly Affairs
Constitutional Amendment 9
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.0%)

Topic Areas:
Human Services | Military & Veterans Affairs | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposes an amendment to the State Constitution to authorize the creation of a Department of Veterans Affairs and a Department of Elderly Affairs.

 

Disbursement of State Funds
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 73.0%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue | Telecom & Info Technology

Summary: Click for Summary
Authorizes the disbursement of state funds by electronic means, magnetic tape, or any other transfer medium. Deletes obsolete language relating to the countersigning of warrants by the Governor.

 

Economic Impact Statements for Proposed Constitutional Amendments or Revisions
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 78.1%)

Topic Areas:
Elections-Initiative Process

Summary: Click for Summary
Requires the Legislature to provide by general law for the provision of an economic impact statement to the public prior to the public voting on an amendment of the Florida Constitution proposed by initiative.

 

Education
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 36.3%)

Topic Areas:
Education: Higher Ed | Education: PreK-12 | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to provide that the state board of education shall be appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, and shall be responsible for the management and coordination of the state system of public education; to provide that the commissioner of education shall be appointed by the board in the event the office of elected commissioner is abolished; and to provide for a board of regents, appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, which shall govern the state university system.


 

Election of County Commissioners
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.3%)

Topic Areas:
Elections | Local Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that county commissioners shall be elected as provided by law, thereby removing the constitutional restriction that county commissioners must be elected at large by the electors of the county, and allows the board of county commissioners to be composed of either five or seven members.

 

Eligibility to be County Court Judge
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 75.3%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective July 1, 1985, to require that unless otherwise provided by general law, no person shall be eligible for the office of county court judge unless he is, and has been for the preceding five years, a member of the bar of Florida unless otherwise provided by general law, a person shall be eligible for election or appointment to the office of county court judge in a county having a population of 40,000 or less if he is a member in good standing of the bar of Florida.

 

Emergency Suspension or Delay of General Election
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.6%)

Topic Areas:
Elections

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to Section 5 of Article VI of the State Constitution to allow for suspension or delay of the general election due to a state of emergency or impending emergency pursuant to general law.

 

Eminent Domain
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

2006

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.0%)

Topic Areas:
Land Use/Property Rights

Summary: Click for Summary
[official summary not yet available]

Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to prohibit the transfer of private property taken by eminent domain to a natural person or private entity; providing that the Legislature may by general law passed by a three-fifths vote of the membership of each house of the Legislature permit exceptions allowing the transfer of such private property; and providing that this prohibition on the transfer of private property taken by eminent domain is applicable if the petition of taking that initiated the condemnation proceeding was filed on or after January 2, 2007.


 

English is the Official Language of Florida
Constitutional Amendment 11
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 84.0%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Establishes English as the official language of the State of Florida. Enables the legislature to implement this article by appropriate legislation.

 

Everglades Trust Fund
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

1996

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 57.3%)

Topic Areas:
Environmental Protection | Natural Resources

Summary: Click for Summary
Establishes an Everglades Trust Fund to be administered by the South Florida Water Management District for purposes of conservation and protection of natural resources and abatement of water pollution in the Everglades. The Everglades Trust Fund may be funded through any source, including gifts and state or federal funds.

 

Excessive Punishments
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.8%)

Topic Areas:
Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution identical to a proposed amendment to Section 17 of Article I of the State Constitution which was approved by a statewide vote in 1998. The Supreme Court of Florida struck the 1998 amendment in a ruling in which four of the seven justices found that the ballot summary was inaccurate. The proposed amendment expressly authorizes the death penalty for capital crimes and expressly authorizes retroactive changes in the method of execution. The amendment changes the prohibition against “cruel or unusual punishment,” currently provided in Section 17 of Article I of the State Constitution, to a prohibition against “cruel and unusual punishment” to conform with the wording of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The amendment prohibits reduction of a death sentence based on invalidity of an execution method and provides for continued force of the sentence. The amendment permits any execution method unless prohibited by the United States Constitution. The amendment requires construction of the prohibition against cruel or unusual punishment and the proposed prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment to conform to United States Supreme Court interpretation of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The amendment would prevent state courts, including the Florida Supreme Court, from treating the state constitutional prohibition against cruel or unusual punishment as being more expansive than the federal constitutional prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment or United States Supreme Court interpretations thereof. The amendment effectively nullifies rights currently allowed under the state prohibition against cruel or unusual punishment which may afford greater protections for those subject to punishment for crimes than will be provided by the amendment. Under the amendment, the protections afforded those subject to punishment for crimes under the “cruel or unusual punishment” clause, as that clause currently appears in Section 17 of Article I of the State Constitution, will be the same as the minimum protections provided under the “cruel and unusual” punishments clause of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The amendment provides for retroactive applicability.

 

Exclusive Voter Approval for Casino Gambling Amendment
Amendment 3
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.5%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Elections-Initiative Process | Gambling & Lotteries | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
The measure would provide voters with the “exclusive right to decide whether to authorize casino gambling in the State of Florida” via the citizen initiative. The Florida State Legislature would not be permitted to authorize casino gambling through statute or through referring a constitutional amendment to the ballot.

 

Executive Cabinet
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 25.1%)

Topic Areas:
State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to eliminate the cabinet composed of the secretary of state, the attorney general, the comptroller, the treasurer, the commissioner of agriculture and the commissioner of education in January, 1983; and to provide, in such event, that the governor, acting jointly with at least one officer, as provided by law, shall be responsible for the investment of state funds, the management of bond debt and the acquisition and disposition of state lands; and to provide that other cabinet duties shall be transferred by law.


 

Exemption for Construction of Living Quarters for Parents or Grandparents
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 67.1%)

Topic Areas:
Human Services | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposes an amendment to the State Constitution to allow counties to exempt from taxation an increase in the assessed value of homestead property resulting from constructing living quarters for a parent or grandparent of the property owner or the property owner’s spouse who is 62 years old or older. Limits the amount of such exemption to the increase in assessed value resulting from such construction or 20 percent of the total assessed value of the property as improved, whichever is less.

 

Exemption of Homestead and Personal Property From Forced Sale
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 79.0%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that the exemption of a homestead and of personal property to the value of $1,000 from forced sale and certain liens shall extend to any natural person, not just the head of a family.

 

Fee on Everglades Sugar Production
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1996

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 45.6%)

Topic Areas:
Agriculture | Business & Commerce | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that the South Florida Water Management District shall levy an Everglades Sugar Fee of 1 per pound on raw sugar grown in the Everglades Agricultural Area to raise funds to be used, consistent with statutory law, for purposes of conservation and protection of natural resources and abatement of water pollution in the Everglades. The fee is imposed for twenty-five years.

 

Finance and Taxation
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 36.3%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to provide that property owned by a municipality and held for municipal purposes shall be exempt from taxation; to extend the personal property tax exemption to all natural persons, and to extend to widowers the property tax exemption of not less than five hundred dollars; to provide for ad valorem tax exemption for leasehold interests created priopr to January 1, 1978 in government owned property; to provide that leasehold interests in government property leased for public purposes in connection with air, water or ground transportation may be exempt from taxation as provided by law; to permit adjustments to tax assessments relating to stock in trade and livestock, historic property and solar energy systems; to permit the revaluation of property every two years; to authorize the use ot tax abatement and increment for redevelopment of slum and blighted area; to provide tha corporate income tax may not be levied against the appreciation of property value occuring prior to November 2, 1971; to permit an annual adjustment to the homestead exemption to maintain a constant value using 1979 as a base year and providing for replacement of revenue to local governments; to provide that state bonds may be used to finance water facilities and may be combined for sale; to provide that revenue bonds may only be issued for fixed capital outlay projects, to place limitations on revenue bonds and bond anticipation notes issued by local governments; and to provide that revenue bonds may be issued for housing and related facilities.


 

Firearms Purchases: Local Option for Criminal History Records Check and Waiting Period
Amendment 12
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 72.0%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Authorizes each county the option of requiring a criminal history records check and waiting period of 3 to 5 days in connection with the “sale” of any firearm; defines “sale” as the transfer of money or other valuable consideration for a firearm where any part of the transaction occurs on property open to public access; does not apply to holders of a concealed weapons permit when purchasing a firearm.


 

First Reponder and Military Member Survivor Benefits, and Public Colleges and Universities Amendment
Constitutional Revision 2
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Constitutional Revision Commission

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 65.8%)

Topic Areas:
Education: Higher Ed | Human Services | Military & Veterans Affairs

Summary: Click for Summary
The measures requires employers to provide benefits to surviving spouses of first responders if they die while on official duty. It requires the state provide benefits to surviving spouses of active-duty military members who are killed. It requires a vote of 9 members of the 12 member board of governors to increase college fees. And it inserts the higher education structure as it exists into the constitution.

 

Florida Marriage Protection Amendment
Amendment 2
Election:
General

2008

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 61.9%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
This amendment protects marriage as the legal union of only one man and one woman as husband and wife and provides that no other legal union that is treated as marriage or the substantial equivalent thereof shall be valid or recognized.

 

Florida Minimum Wage Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.3%)

Topic Areas:
Labor & Employment

Summary: Click for Summary
This amendment creates a Florida minimum wage covering all employees in the state covered by the federal minimum wage. The state minimum wage will start at $6.15 per hour six months after enactment, and thereafter be indexed to inflation each year. It provides for enforcement, including double damages for unpaid wages, attorney’s fees, and fines by the state. It forbids retaliation against employees for exercising this right.

 

Florida Transportation Initiative for statewide high speed monorail, fixed guideway or magnetic levitation system.
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

2000

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 52.7%)

Topic Areas:
Transportation

Summary: Click for Summary
To reduce traffic and increase travel alternatives, this amendment provides for development of a high speed monorail, fixed guideway or magnetic levitation system linking Florida’s five largest urban areas and providing for access to existing air and ground transportation facilities and services by directing the state and/or state authorized private entity to implement the financing, acquisition of right-of-way, design, construction and operation of the system, with construction beginning by November 1, 2003.

 

Florida’s Amendment to Reduce Class Size
Constitutional Amendment 9
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 52.9% )

Topic Areas:
Education: PreK-12

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposes an amendment to the State Constitution to require that the Legislature provide funding for sufficient classrooms so that there be a maximum number of students in public school classes for various grade levels; requires compliance by the beginning of the 2010 school year; requires the Legislature, and not local school districts, to pay for the costs associated with reduced class size; prescribes a schedule for phased-in funding to achieve the required maximum class size.

 

Health Care Services
Amendment 1
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 48.5% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Health | Insurance

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to prohibit laws or rules from compelling any person or employer to purchase, obtain, or otherwise provide for health care coverage; permit a person or an employer to purchase lawful health care services directly from a health care provider; permit a health care provider to accept direct payment from a person or an employer for lawful health care services; exempt persons, employers, and health care providers from penalties and taxes for paying directly or accepting direct payment for lawful health care services; and prohibit laws or rules from abolishing the private market for health care coverage of any lawful health care service. Specifies that the amendment does not affect which health care services a health care provider is required to perform or provide; affect which health care services are permitted by law; prohibit care provided pursuant to general law relating to workers’ compensation; affect laws or rules in effect as of March 1, 2010; affect the terms or conditions of any health care system to the extent that those terms and conditions do not have the effect of punishing a person or an employer for paying directly for lawful health care services or a health care provider for accepting direct payment from a person or an employer for lawful health care services; or affect any general law passed by two-thirds vote of the membership of each house of the Legislature, passed after the effective date of the amendment, provided such law states with specificity the public necessity justifying the exceptions from the provisions of the amendment. The amendment expressly provides that it may not be construed to prohibit negotiated provisions in insurance contracts, network agreements, or other provider agreements contractually limiting copayments, coinsurance, deductibles, or other patient charges. (SJR 2, 2011)

 

Historic Preservation Ad Valorem Tax Exemption
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 62.4%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective January 1, 1993, to permit any country or municipality to authorize ad valorem tax exemptions for owners of historic property to encourage the rehabilitation or renovation of such structures, subject to general law.

 

Historic Property Tax Exemption and Assessment
Amendment 1
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 54.5%)

Topic Areas:
Arts & Culture | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
With respect to historic property granted ad valorem tax exemption by a county or municipality, removes a requirement that owner be engaged in renovating the property. Authorizes the Legislature to allow counties or municipalities, by ordinance, to assess historic properties solely on the basis of character or use for ad valorem tax purposes, subject to eligibility requirements specified by general law.

 

Homestead Ad Valorem Tax Credit for Deployed Military Personnel
Amendment 2
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 77.8%)

Topic Areas:
Military & Veterans Affairs | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to require the Legislature to provide an additional homestead property tax exemption by law for members of the United States military or military reserves, the United States Coast Guard or its reserves, or the Florida National Guard who receive a homestead exemption and were deployed in the previous year on active duty outside the continental United States, Alaska, or Hawaii in support of military operations designated by the Legislature. The exempt amount will be based upon the number of days in the previous calendar year that the person was deployed on active duty outside the continental United States, Alaska, or Hawaii in support of military operations designated by the Legislature. The amendment is scheduled to take effect January 1, 2011.

 

Homestead Exemption
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.6%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the March 11, 1980 Presidential Preference Primary.

Proposing amendments to the State Constitution to provide a homestead exemption of $25,000 from certain ad valorem school millage levies, providing authorization for ad valorem tax relief for permanent resident renters, and providing that the $25,000 exemption from certain ad valorem school millage levies shall take effect upon approval by the voters and apply to the taxes levied on the assessment rolls for the year 1980 and each year thereafter.


 

Homestead Exemption Tax
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1986

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 35.5%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that the homestead tax exemption shall be changed from $25,000 to $5,000, plus one-half of the assessed value over $5,000, the total exemption not to exceed $25,000.

 

Homestead Property Tax Exemption for Surviving Souse of Military Veteran or First Responder
Amendment 9
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 61.7% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Military & Veterans Affairs | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to authorize the Legislature to provide by general law ad valorem homestead property tax relief to the surviving spouse of a military veteran who died from service- connected causes while on active duty or to the surviving spouse of a first responder who died in the line of duty. The amendment authorizes the Legislature to totally exempt or partially exempt such surviving spouse’s homestead property from ad valorem taxation. The amendment defines a first responder as a law enforcement officer, a correctional officer, a firefighter, an emergency medical technician, or a paramedic. This amendment shall take effect January 1, 2013.

 

Homestead Tax Exemption for Seniors Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

2016

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 78.3% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to revise the homestead tax exemption that may be granted by counties or municipalities for property with just value less than $250,000 owned by certain senior, low-income, long-term residents to specify that just value is determined in the first tax year the owner applies and is eligible for the exemption.

 

Homestead Valuation Limitation
Amendment 10
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 53.6%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Providing for limiting increases in homestead property valuations for ad valorem tax purposes to a maximum of 3% annually and also providing for reassessment of market values upon changes in ownership.

 

Homestead Valuation Limitation
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 53.6%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary

 

Impeachment of County Court Judges
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 72.3%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary | Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide that county court judges shall be subject to impeachment by the Legislature and thereby removing present authority of Governor to suspend county court judges.

 

Improving Accountability and Public Review in Spending Taxpayers’ Money and Maintaining a Balanced Budget
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 82.7%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets

Summary: Click for Summary
Referred by the Florida Tax and Budget Reform Commission.

A revision requiring: 72-hour public review for appropriation bills; a buget stabilization fund; performance measurment and productivity programs; a state planning document and department ad agency planning processes; appropriation bills format; appropriations review; annual state budgeting and planning processes; processes for creating and sunsetting trust funds; and a final budget report. Providing executive authority to maintain a balanced budget and to direct planning and budgeting. Expanding use of educational capital outlay funds.


 

Increase to Two-Thirds Vote Majority in Legislature to Increase Taxes Amendment
Amendment 5
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 65.8%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | State Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Would increase the majority needed in both chambers of the Florida State Legislature to two-thirds in order to increase taxes.

 

Increased Homestead Exemption
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

2006

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 76.4%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing amendment of the State Constitution to increase the maximum additional homestead exemption for low-income seniors from $25,000 to $50,000 and to schedule the amendment to take effect January 1, 2007, if adopted.

 

Increased Homestead Property Tax Exemption
Amendment 1
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 58.1%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Increases the amount of a home’s value exempted from property tax. The $25,000 between $100,000 and $125,000 would become tax exempt except for school district taxes.

 

Judiciary
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1996

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 74.9%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing amendments to the State Constitution to allow judicial nominating commissions to recommend from three up to six persons to fill a court vacancy; and to restructure the Judicial Qualifications Commission and permit additional sanctions for judicial misconduct.

 

Laws Affecting Local Governmental Expenditures or Ability to Raise Revenue or Receive State Tax Revenue
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1990

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.0%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Excuses counties and municipalities from complying with general laws requiring them to spend funds unless: the law fulfills an important state interest; and it is enacted by two-thirds vote, or funding sources are provided, or certain other conditions are met. Prohibits general laws that have certain negative fiscal consequences for counties and municipalities unless enacted by two-thirds vote. Exempts certain categories of laws from these requirements. (HJR 139 and 40)

 

Laws Providing Public Records or Meetings Exemptions; Two-Thirds Vote Required
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 76.4%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Requires that laws providing exemptions from public records or public meetings requirements must, after the effective date of this amendment, be passed by a two-thirds vote of each house of the Legislature.

 

Legalization of Medical Marijuana Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

2016

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.3% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Drug/Alcohol/Tobacco Policy

Summary: Click for Summary
Allows medical use of marijuana for individuals with debilitating medical conditions as determined by a licensed Florida physician. Allows caregivers to assist patients’ medical use of marijuana. The Department of Health shall register and regulate centers that produce and distribute marijuana for medical purposes and shall issue identification cards to patients and caregivers. Applies only to Florida law. Does not immunize violations of federal law or any non-medical use, possession or production of marijuana.

 

Limitation of Non-Economic Damages in Civil Actions
Constitutional Amendment 10
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 43.4%)

Topic Areas:
Health | Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Amendment provides that a person entitled to recover damages for bodily injuries in any action may not recover more than $100,000 for non-economic losses; defines non-economic losses to include pain and suffering, inconvenience, mental anguish, loss of capacity to enjoy life, loss of consortium and other non-pecuniary losses; provides by general law the maximum amount recoverable may be adjusted utilizing a consumer price index published by the United States Government; provides an effective date.

 

Limitations on State Revenue Collections
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1994

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 59.4%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Limits state revenue collections to the prior year’s allowed revenue plus an adjustment for growth based on the growth rate of state personal income over the preceding five years, with excess collections deposited in the budget stabilization fund until fully funded and then refunded to taxpayers. Define “state revenues.” Allows the Legislature to increase this limit by 2/3 vote. Requires adjustment of the limitation to reflect transfers of responsibility for funding governmental functions.

 

Limited Casinos
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1994

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 38.0%)

Topic Areas:
Gambling & Lotteries

Summary: Click for Summary
Authorizing a limited number of gaming casinos in Broward, Dade, Duval, Escambia, Hillsborough, Lee, Orange, Palm Beach and Pinellas Counties, with two in Miami Beach; and limited-size casinos with existing and operating pari-mutuel facilities; and if authorized by the legislature up to five limited-size riverboat casinos in the remaining counties, but only one per county. Mandating implementation by the legislature. Effective upon adoption, but prohibiting casino gaming until July 1, 1995.

 

Limited Political Terms in Certain Elective Offices
Constitutional Amendment 9
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 76.8%)

Topic Areas:
Federal Government | Legislatures | State Government | Term Limits

Summary: Click for Summary
Limits terms by prohibiting incumbents who have held the same elective office for the preceding eight years from appearing on the ballot for re-election to that office. Offices covered are: Florida Representative and Senator, Lieutenant Governor, Florida Cabinet, and U.S. Senator and Representative. Terms of office beginning before amendment approval are not counted.

 

Limiting Marine Net Fishing
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1994

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.7%)

Topic Areas:
Animal Rights/Hunting & Fishing | Business & Commerce | Natural Resources

Summary: Click for Summary
Limits the use of nets for catching saltwater finfish, shellfish, or other marine animals by prohibiting the use of gill and other entangling nets in all Florida waters, and prohibiting the use of other nets larger than 500 square feet in mesh area in nearshore and inshore Florida waters. Provides definitions, administrative and criminal penalties, and exceptions for scientific and governmental purposes.

 

Local and Municipal Property Tax Exemptions and Citizen Access to Local Officials
Amendment 10
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 49.8%)

Topic Areas:
Local Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Broadens tax exemption for governmental uses of municipal property; authorizes legislature to exempt certain municipal and special district property used for airport, seaport, or public purposes; permits local option tax exemption for property used for conservation purposes; permits local option tangible personal property tax exemption for attachments to mobile homes and certain residential rental furnishings; removes limitations on citizens’ ability to communicate with local officials about matters which are the subject of public hearings.


 

Local Option Community College Funding
Amendment 8
Election:
General

2008

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 43.5%)

Topic Areas:
Education: Higher Ed | Local Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Referred by the Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission

Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to require that the Legislature authorize counties to levy a local option sales tax to supplement community college funding; requiring voter approval to levy the tax; providing that approved taxes will sunset after 5 years and may be reauthorized by the voters.


 

Local Option for Selection of Judges and Funding of State Courts
Amendment 7
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 56.9%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Judiciary | Local Government

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Provides for future local elections to decide whether to continue electing circuit and county judges or to adopt system of appointment of those judges by governor, with subsequent elections to retain or not retain those judges; provides election procedure for subsequent changes to selection of judges; increases county judges’ terms from four to six years; corrects judicial qualifications commission term of office; allocates state courts system funding among state, counties, and users of courts.


 

Local Trustees and Statewide Governing Board to Manage Florida’s University System
Constitutional Amendment 11
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 60.2%)

Topic Areas:
Education: Higher Ed | Local Government | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
A local board of trustees shall administer each state university. Each board shall have thirteen members dedicated to excellence in teaching, research, and service to community. A statewide governing board of seventeen members shall be responsible for the coordinated and accountable operation of the whole university system. Wasteful duplication of facilities or programs is to be avoided. Provides procedures for selection and confirmation of board members, including one student and one faculty representative per board.

 

Miscellaneous Matters and Technical Revisions
Amendment 13
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 55.0%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Removes gender-specific references; allows prison sentences in court-martial actions; consolidates ethics code provisions; specifies time for veto message consideration; clarifies that legislature gives designated officials final general appropriations bills 72 hours before passage; allows direct appeal of courts-martial to specified state court and advisory opinions from federal military courts; requires earlier constitution revision commission appointments; changes tax and budget reform commission voting procedures and meetings from every 10 to every 20 years.


 

Modify Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 67.1%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the March 11, 1980 Presidential Preference Primary.

Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to modify the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.


 

Open Government
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1990

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 87.7%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the state constitution to provide that certain votes of legislators be recorded; that the Legislature provide by rule for open and noticed committee meetings and for certain other legislative meetings and meetings between the Governor, the President of the Senate, or the Speaker of the House to be reasonably open to the public; and that certain constitutional provisions relating to the Legislature be interpreted, implemented, and ennforced solely by the Legislature. (SJR 1990 and 2)

 

Parental Notification of a Minor’s Termination of Pregnancy
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.7%)

Topic Areas:
Abortion

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to authorize the Legislature to require by general law for notification to a parent or guardian of a minor before the termination of the minor’s pregnancy. The amendment provides that the Legislature shall not limit or deny the privacy rights guaranteed to minors under the United States Supreme Court. The Legislature shall provide exceptions to such requirement for notification and shall create a process for judicial waiver of the requirement for notification.

 

Passage of Bills
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 66.9%)

Topic Areas:
Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide that the publication of the title of a bill in the legislative journals shall serve as the first of the three readings required by the State Constitution.

 

Patients’ Right to Know about Adverse Medical Incidents
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 81.2%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Health

Summary: Click for Summary
Current Florida law restricts information available to patients related to investigations of adverse medical incidents, such as medical malpractice. This amendment would give patients the right to review, upon request, records of health care facilities’ or providers’ adverse medical incidents, including those which could cause injury or death. Provides that patients’ identities should not be disclosed.

 

Permanent Cap on Nonhomestead Parcel Assessment Increases Amendment
Amendment 2
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 66.5%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Business & Commerce | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
The nonhomestead cap limits increases to assessments rates to 10 percent per year. Nonhomestead parcels include second homes, rental properties, commercial properties, and vacant land.

 

Permanently Disabled Veterans’ Discount on Homestead Ad Valorem Tax
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

2006

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 77.8%)

Topic Areas:
Military & Veterans Affairs | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide a discount from the amount of ad valorem tax on the homestead of a partially or totally permanently disabled veteran who is age 65 or older who was a Florida resident at the time of entering military service, whose disability was combat-related, and who was honorably discharged; to specify the percentage of the discount as equal to the percentage of the veteran’s permanent service-connected disability; to specify qualification requirements for the discount; to authorize the Legislature to waive the annual application requirement in subsequent years by general law; and to specify that the provision takes effect December 7, 2006, is self-executing, and does not require implementing legislation.

 

Preservation of the Death Penalty; US Supreme Court Interpretation of Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Amendment 2
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 72.8%)

Topic Areas:
Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the constitution preserving the death penalty, and permitting any execution method unless prohibited by the Federal Constitution. Requires construction of the prohibition against cruel and/or unusual punishment to conform to U.S. Supreme Court interpretation of the Eighth Amendment. Prohibits reduction of a death sentence based on invalidity of execution method, and provides for continued force of sentence.

 

Pretrial Release and Detention
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1982

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 61.0%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
PRETRIAL RELEASE AND DETENTION – Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective January 1, 1983, to provide that a person charged with a crime or a violation of a municipal or county ordinance, other than a capital offense or an offense punishable by life imprisonment, shall be entitled to release before trial unless enumerated conditions indicate that the person should be detained.

 

Procedures of Judicial Nominating Commissions
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 82.2%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that uniform rules of procedure be established by judicial nominating commissions at each level of the court system and that the rules may be repealed by general law or by the Supreme Court. Provides that proceedings of the commissions and their records shall be open to the public, except for deliberations of the commissions.

 

Prohibition of Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling and Prohibition on Vaping in Enclosed Indoor Workplaces Amendment
Constitutional Revision 4
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Constitutional Revision Commission

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 68.9%)

Topic Areas:
Business & Commerce | Energy & Electric Utilities | Environmental Protection | Health | Labor & Employment

Summary: Click for Summary
The measure bans offshore drilling for oil and natural gas on all lands beneath state waters. And it bans the use vapor-generating electronic devices, including electronic cigarettes and the act known as vaping, in enclosed indoor workplaces.

 

Prohibition on Public Funding of Abortions; Construction of Abortion Rights
Amendment 6
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 44.9% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Abortion

Summary: Click for Summary
This proposed amendment provides that public funds may not be expended for any abortion or for health-benefits coverage that includes coverage of abortion. This prohibition does not apply to an expenditure required by federal law, a case in which a woman suffers from a physical disorder, physical injury, or physical illness that would place her in danger of death unless an abortion is performed, or a case of rape or incest. This proposed amendment provides that the State Constitution may not be interpreted to create broader rights to an abortion than those contained in the United States Constitution. With respect to abortion, this proposed amendment overrules court decisions which conclude that the right of privacy under Article I, Section 23 of the State Constitution is broader in scope than that of the United States Constitution.

(HJR 1179)


 

Property Tax Exemption for Widowers
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 85.2%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to extend the property tax exemption for widows to widowers as well.

 

Property Tax Exemption of Perpetually Conserved Land; Classification and Assessment of Land Used for Conservation
Amendment 4
Election:
General

2008

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 68.6%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Referred by the Florida Taxation and Budget Reform Commission

Requires Legislature to provide a property tax exemption for real property encumbered by perpetual conservation easements or other perpetual conservation protections, defined by general law. Requires Legislature to provide for classification and assessment of land used for conservation purposes, and not perpetually encumbered, solely on the basis of character or use. Subjects assessment benefit to conditions, limitations, and reasonable definitions established by general law. Applies to property taxes beginning in 2010.


 

Property Tax Exemptions; Limitations on Property Tax Assessments
Amendment 1
Election:
Primary

2008

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.0%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
To be considered in the Presidential Preference Primary on January 29, 2008.

This revision proposes changes to the State Constitution relating to property taxation. With respect to homestead property, this revision: (1) increases the homestead exemption except for school district taxes and (2) allows homestead property owners to transfer up to $500,000 of their Save-Our-Homes benefits to their next homestead. With respect to nonhomestead property, this revision (3) provides a $25,000 exemption for tangible personal property and (4) limits assessment increases for specified nonhomestead real property except for school district taxes.

In more detail, this revision:

(1) Increases the homestead exemption by exempting the assessed value between $50,000 and $75,000. This exemption does not apply to school district taxes.

(2) Provides for the transfer of accumulated Save-Our-Homes benefits. Homestead property owners will be able to transfer their Save-Our-Homes benefit to a new homestead within 1 year and not more than 2 years after relinquishing their previous homestead; except, if this revision is approved by the electors in January of 2008 and if the new homestead is established on January 1, 2008, the previous homestead must have been relinquished in 2007. If the new homestead has a higher just value than the previous one, the accumulated benefit can be transferred; if the new homestead has a lower just value, the amount of benefit transferred will be reduced. The transferred benefit may not exceed $500,000. This provision applies to all taxes.

(3) Authorizes an exemption from property taxes of $25,000 of assessed value of tangible personal property. This provision applies to all taxes.

(4) Limits the assessment increases for specified nonhomestead real property to 10 percent each year. Property will be assessed at just value following an improvement, as defined by general law, and may be assessed at just value following a change of ownership or control if provided by general law. This limitation does not apply to school district taxes. This limitation is repealed effective January 1, 2019, unless renewed by a vote of the electors in the general election held in 2018.

Further, this revision:

a. Repeals obsolete language on the homestead exemption when it was less than $25,000 and did not apply uniformly to property taxes levied by all local governments.

b. Provides for homestead exemptions to be repealed if a future constitutional amendment provides for assessment of homesteads “at less than just value” rather than as currently provided “at a specified percentage” of just value.

c. Schedules the changes to take effect upon approval by the electors and operate retroactively to January 1, 2008, if approved in a special election held on January 29, 2008, or to take effect January 1, 2009, if approved in the general election held in November of 2008. The limitation on annual assessment increases for specified real property shall first apply to the 2009 tax roll if this revision is approved in a special election held on January 29, 2008, or shall first apply to the 2010 tax roll if this revision is approved in the general election held in November of 2008.


 

Property Tax Limitations; Property Value Decline; Reduction for Nonhomestead Assessment Increases; Delay of Scheduled Repeal
Amendment 4
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 43.2% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
(1) This would amend Florida Constitution Article VII, Section 4 (Taxation; assessments) and Section 6 (Homestead exemptions). It also would amend Article XII, Section 27, and add Sections 32 and 33, relating to the Schedule for the amendments.

(2) In certain circumstances, the law requires the assessed value of homestead and specified nonhomestead property to increase when the just value of the property decreases. Therefore, this amendment provides that the Legislature may, by general law, provide that the assessment of homestead and specified nonhomestead property may not increase if the just value of that property is less than the just value of the property on the preceding January 1, subject to any adjustment in the assessed value due to changes, additions, reductions, or improvements to such property which are assessed as provided for by general law. This amendment takes effect upon approval by the voters. If approved at a special election held on the date of the 2012 presidential preference primary, it shall operate retroactively to January 1, 2012, or, if approved at the 2012 general election, shall take effect January 1, 2013.

(3) This amendment reduces from 10 percent to 5 percent the limitation on annual changes in assessments of nonhomestead real property. This amendment takes effect upon approval of the voters. If approved at a special election held on the date of the 2012 presidential preference primary, it shall operate retroactively to January 1, 2012, or, if approved at the 2012 general election, takes effect January 1, 2013.

(4) This amendment also authorizes general law to provide, subject to conditions specified in such law, an additional homestead exemption to every person who establishes the right to receive the homestead exemption provided in the Florida Constitution within 1 year after purchasing the homestead property and who has not owned property in the previous 3 calendar years to which the Florida homestead exemption applied. The additional homestead exemption shall apply to all levies except school district levies. The additional exemption is an amount equal to 50 percent of the homestead property’s just value on January 1 of the year the homestead is established. The additional homestead exemption may not exceed an amount equal to the median just value of all homestead property within the county where the property at issue is located for the calendar year immediately preceding January 1 of the year the homestead is established. The additional exemption shall apply for the shorter of 5 years or the year of sale of the property. The amount of the additional exemption shall be reduced in each subsequent year by an amount equal to 20 percent of the amount of the additional exemption received in the year the homestead was established or by an amount equal to the difference between the just value of the property and the assessed value of the property determined under Article VII, Section 4(d), whichever is greater. Not more than one such exemption shall be allowed per homestead property at one time. The additional exemption applies to property purchased on or after January 1, 2011, if approved by the voters at a special election held on the date of the 2012 presidential preference primary, or to property purchased on or after January 1, 2012, if approved by the voters at the 2012 general election. The additional exemption is not available in the sixth and subsequent years after it is first received. The amendment shall take effect upon approval by the voters. If approved at a special election held on the date of the 2012 presidential preference primary, it shall operate retroactively to January 1, 2012, or, if approved at the 2012 general election, takes effect January 1, 2013.

(5) This amendment also delays until 2023, the repeal, currently scheduled to take effect in 2019, of constitutional amendments adopted in 2008 which limit annual assessment increases for specified nonhomestead real property. This amendment delays until 2022 the submission of an amendment proposing the abrogation of such repeal to the voters.

(HJR 381)


 

Prospective Appointment of Judicial Vacancies
Amendment 3
Election:
General

2014

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 47.9% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution requiring the Governor to prospectively fill vacancies in a judicial office to which election for retention applies resulting from the justice’s or judge’s reaching the mandatory retirement age or failure to qualify for a retention election; and allowing prospective appointments if a justice or judge is not retained at an election. Currently, the Governor may not fill an expected vacancy until the current justice’s or judge’s term expires.

 

Protect People from the Health Hazards of Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke by Prohibiting Workplace Smoking
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 70.6%)

Topic Areas:
Drug/Alcohol/Tobacco Policy | Health | Labor & Employment

Summary: Click for Summary
To protect people from the health hazards of second-hand tobacco smoke, this amendment prohibits tobacco smoking in enclosed indoor workplaces. Allows exceptions for private residences except when they are being used to provide commercial child care, adult care or health care. Also allows exceptions for retail tobacco shops, designated smoking guest rooms at hotels and other public lodging establishments, and stand-alone bars. Provides definitions, and requires the legislature to promptly implement this amendment.

 

Protect People, Especially Youth, from Addition, Disease and Other Health Hazards of Using Tobacco
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

2006

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 60.9%)

Topic Areas:
Drug/Alcohol/Tobacco Policy | Health

Summary: Click for Summary
[Official title and summary not yet available]

To protect people, especially youth, from addiction, disease, and other health hazards of using tobacco, the Legislature shall use some Tobacco Settlement money annually for a comprehensive statewide tobacco education and prevention program using Centers for Disease Control best practices. Specifies some program components, emphasizing youth, requiring one-third of total annual funding for advertising. Annual funding is 15% of 2005 Tobacco Settlement payments to Florida, adjusted annually for inflation. Provides definitions. Effective immediately.


 

Public Education Capital Outlay Bonds
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 77.0%)

Topic Areas:
Bond Measures | Education: PreK-12

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide for the levy on gross receipts pursuant to Chapter 203, Florida Statutes, as provided by law to authorize the continuation of the funding of public education capital outlay bonds for the construction of public school, vocational education, community college, School for the Deaf & Blind, and university buildings.

 

Public Education of Children
Amendment 6
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.0%)

Topic Areas:
Education: PreK-12

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Declares the education of children to be a fundamental value of the people of Florida; establishes adequate provision for education as a paramount duty of the state; expands constitutional mandate requiring the state to make adequate provision for a uniform system of free public schools by also requiring the state to make adequate provision for an efficient, safe, secure, and high quality system.


 

Public Protection from Repeated Medical Malpractice
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 71.1%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Health

Summary: Click for Summary
Current law allows medical doctors who have committed repeated malpractice to be licensed to practice medicine in Florida. This amendment prohibits medical doctors who have been found to have committed three or more incidents of medical malpractice from being licensed to practice medicine in Florida.

 

Public Service Commission and Public Counsel
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 36.0%)

Topic Areas:
Energy & Electric Utilities | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to provide for a five-member public service commission, each member to be appointed by the governor from a list of not fewer than three persons submitted by a nominating commission, and that such members shall be confirmed by the senate; and to establish a public counsel to represent the people of the state before the public service commission.


 

Recording of Instruments in Branch Offices
Amendment 4
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 74.1%)

Topic Areas:
Local Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the constitution authorizing the recording of instruments by filing at a branch office of a county seat.

 

Referenda Required for Adoption and Amendment of Local Government Comprehensive Land Use Plans
Amendment 4
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 32.9%)

Topic Areas:
Elections | Land Use/Property Rights | Local Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Establishes that before a local government may adopt a new comprehensive land use plan, or amend a comprehensive land use plan, the proposed plan or amendment shall be subject to vote of the electors of the local government by referendum, following preparation by the local planning agency, consideration by the governing body and notice. Provides definitions.

 

Regular Legislative Sessions
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1990

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 83.6%)

Topic Areas:
Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the state constitution to require the Legislature to convene at an earlier specified date in 1991 and, in 1992 and thereafter, to convene on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in February of each odd-numbered year and on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in February, or such other date as may be fixed by law, of each even-numbered year. (SJR 380)

 

Relating to Property Rights/Ineligible Aliens
Amendment 1
Election:
General

2008

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 47.9%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Land Use/Property Rights

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to delete provisions authorizing the Legislature to regulate or prohibit the ownership, inheritance, disposition, and possession of real property by aliens ineligible for citizenship.

 

Religious Freedom
Amendment 8
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 44.5% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution providing that no individual or entity may be denied, on the basis of religious identity or belief, governmental benefits, funding or other support, except as required by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, and deleting the prohibition against using revenues from the public treasury directly or indirectly in aid of any church, sect, or religious denomination or in aid of any sectarian institution.

 

Repeal of High Speed Rail Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 63.7%)

Topic Areas:
Transportation

Summary: Click for Summary
This amendment repeals an amendment in the Florida Constitution that requires the Legislature, the Cabinet and the Governor to proceed with the development and operation of a high speed ground transportation system by the state and/or by a private entity.

 

Repeal of Prohibition of Foreign-Born Persons Owning Property, Removal of Obsolete High-Speed Rail Provision, and Revision of the Effect of a Repeal of a Criminal Statute Amendment
Constitutional Revision 6
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Constitutional Revision Commission

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 62.1%)

Topic Areas:
Criminal Justice | Land Use/Property Rights | Transportation

Summary: Click for Summary
This measure repeals the prohibition against foreign-born persons from owning, inheriting, disposing, or possessing property. It removes a provision that stated that a high-speed rail system be developed in Florida. And it revises a provision on criminal prosecution to state that the “repeal of a criminal statute shall not affect prosecution for any crime committed before such repeal.”

 

Repeal of Public Campaign Financing Requirement
Amendment 1
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 52.5%)

Topic Areas:
Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Finance

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing the repeal of the provision in the State Constitution that requires public financing of campaigns of candidates for elective statewide office who agree to campaign spending limits.

 

Requiring Broader Public Support for Constitutional Amendments or Revisions
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

2006

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 57.8%)

Topic Areas:
Elections | Elections-Initiative Process

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposes an amendment to Section 5 of Article XI of the State Constitution to require that any proposed amendment to or revision of the State Constitution, whether proposed by the Legislature, by initiative, or by any other method, must be approved by at least 60 percent of the voters of the state voting on the measure, rather than by a simple majority. This proposed amendment would not change the current requirement that a proposed constitutional amendment imposing a new state tax or fee be approved by at least 2/3 percent of the voters of the state voting in the election in which such an amendment is considered.

 

Responsibility for Paying Costs for Water Pollution
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1996

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 68.1%)

Topic Areas:
Business & Commerce | Environmental Protection

Summary: Click for Summary
The Constitution currently provides the authority for the abatement of water pollution. This proposal adds a provision to provide that those in the Everglades Agricultural Area who cause water pollution within the Everglades Protection Area or the Everglades Agricultural Area shall be primarily responsible for paying the costs of the abatement of that pollution.

 

Restoration of Voting Rights for Individuals with Felony Convictions Amendment
Amendment 4
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.6%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice | Elections | Juvenile Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
Would restore the voting rights of Floridians with a felony conviction. Excludes felons convicted of murder and felony sexual offenses.

 

Restrictions on Lobbying Amendment
Constitutional Revision 7
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Constitutional Revision Commission

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 78.9%)

Topic Areas:
Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Finance | Local Government | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
The measure expands current restrictions on lobbying for compensation by former public officers, creates restrictions on lobbying for compensation by currently serving public officers, provides exceptions, and prohibits certain abuse of public office for personal benefit.

 

Restructuring the State Cabinet
Amendment 8
Election:
General

1998

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 55.5%)

Topic Areas:
State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
(Placed on the ballot by the Constitutional Revision Commission.)

Merges cabinet offices of treasurer and comptroller into one chief financial officer; reduces cabinet membership to chief financial officer, attorney general, agriculture commissioner; secretary of state and education commissioner eliminated from elected cabinet; secretary of state duties defined by law; changes composition of state board of education from governor and cabinet to board appointed by governor; board appoints education commissioner; defines state board of administration, trustees of internal improvement trust fund, land acquisition trust fund.


 

Revenue limits: may people’s amendments limiting government revenue be allowed to cover multiple subjects?
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1994

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 58.1%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Elections-Initiative Process | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
This provision would expand the people’s rights to initiate constitutional changes limiting the power of government to raise revenue by allowing amendments to cover multiple subjects. This provision is effective immediately after voter approval for amendments effective thereafter.

 

Revision of the Class Size Requirement for Public Schools
Amendment 8
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 54.5%)

Topic Areas:
Education: PreK-12

Summary: Click for Summary
The Florida Constitution currently limits the maximum number of students assigned to each teacher in public school classrooms in the following grade groupings: for prekindergarten through grade 3, 18 students; for grades 4 through 8, 22 students; and for grades 9 through 12, 25 students. Under this amendment, the current limits on the maximum number of students assigned to each teacher in public school classrooms would become limits on the average number of students assigned per class to each teacher, by specified grade grouping, in each public school. This amendment also adopts new limits on the maximum number of students assigned to each teacher in an individual classroom as follows: for prekindergarten through grade 3, 21 students; for grades 4 through 8, 27 students; and for grades 9 through 12, 30 students. This amendment specifies that class size limits do not apply to virtual classes, requires the Legislature to provide sufficient funds to maintain the average number of students required by this amendment, and schedules these revisions to take effect upon approval by the electors of this state and to operate retroactively to the beginning of the 2010-2011 school year.

 

Right of Privacy
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 60.6%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing the creation of Section 23 of Article I of the State Constitution establishing a constitutional right of privacy.

 

Rights for Crime Victims, Judges Age, and Interpreting Statutes Amendment
Constitutional Revision 1
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Constitutional Revision Commission

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 61.6%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice | Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
The measure adds a list of rights for crime victims, popularly known as Marsy’s law. It increases the judicial retirement age from 70 to 75. And it prohibits state courts from deferring to an agency’s interpretation of state laws.

 

Rights of Victims of Crime
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 90.2%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to grant victims of crime, and the next of kin of homicide victims, the qualified right to be informed, to be present, and to be heard at all crucial stages of criminal proceedings.

 

Searches and Seizures
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1982

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 63.5%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide that the right to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures shall be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution and to provide that illegally seized articles or information are inadmissable if decisions of the United States Supreme Court makes such evidence inadmissable.

 

Second Gas Tax
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 55.6%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue | Transportation

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to Section 9 of Article XII of the State Constitution replacing the 40-year limitation on the use of the “second gas tax” to finance bonds for roads with a 40-year limitation upon the bonds secured and payable by revenues from the tax. Proposing to authorize counties to utilize such revenues for road maintenance as authorized by law rather than just for the acquisition or construction of roads. Proposing to allow the use of revenues other than those from the tax and pledged tolls to pay bonds secured by the tax. Proposing to include within the formula used to determine the debt service requirements on such bonds legally available pledged revenues other than those from the tax and from tolls.

 

Selection and Retention of Circuit and County Judges
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 49.1%)

Topic Areas:
Elections | Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to provide that circuit and county court judges submit themselves for retention ro rejection by the electors in a general election every six years; to provide that the governor shall fill vacancies occurring by rejection or otherwise from a list of at least three names submitted by the appropriate nominating commission; and to increase the terms of county court judges from four to six years.


 

Selection of Circuit Court Judges
Referendum 2
Election:
General

2000

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail

Topic Areas:
Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Summary not yet available

 

Selection of County Court Judges
Referendum 3
Election:
General

2000

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail

Topic Areas:
Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Summary not yet available

 

Single-Member Districts and Reapportionment Commission
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

1978

Type:
Other

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 46.9%)

Topic Areas:
Redistricting

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Proposing a revision of the Florida Constitution to require single-member legislative districts, and to establish reapportionment standards and a commission to prepare a reapportionment plan for legislative and congressional districts.


 

Speech or Debate Privilege
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1984

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 33.3%)

Topic Areas:
Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to provide that legislators’ speech or debate relating to legislative duties is privileged and that legislators shall not be questioned in any other place with respect thereto.

 

Standards for Legislature to Follow in Congressional Redistricting
Amendment 6
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 62.9%)

Topic Areas:
Redistricting

Summary: Click for Summary
Congressional districts or districting plans may not be drawn to favor or disfavor an incumbent or political party. Districts shall not be drawn to deny racial or language minorities the equal opportunity to participate in the political process and elect representatives of their choice. Districts must be contiguous. Unless otherwise required, districts must be compact, as equal in population as feasible, and where feasible must make use of existing city, county and geographical boundaries.

 

Standards for Legislature to Follow in Legislative Redistricting
Amendment 5
Election:
General

2010

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 62.6%)

Topic Areas:
Redistricting

Summary: Click for Summary
Legislative districts or districting plans may not be drawn to favor or disfavor an incumbent or political party. Districts shall not be drawn to deny racial or language minorities the equal opportunity to participate in the political process and elect representatives of their choice. Districts must be contiguous. Unless otherwise required, districts must be compact, as equal in population as feasible, and where feasible must make use of existing city, county and geographical boundaries.

 

Start of Regular Sessions of the Legislature
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1994

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 74.0%)

Topic Areas:
Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution, effective upon approval, to provide that the annual 60-day regular sessions of the Legislature begin on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in March.

 

State Bonds for Water Facilities
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 67.0%)

Topic Areas:
Bond Measures | Natural Resources

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to Section 14 of Article VII of the State Constitution to allow the issuance of state bonds for water facilities as authorized by general law.

 

State Courts
Amendment 5
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 37.0% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Judiciary | Legislatures

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing a revision of Article V of the State Constitution relating to the judiciary. The State Constitution authorizes the Supreme Court to adopt rules for the practice and procedure in all courts. The constitution further provides that a rule of court may be repealed by a general law enacted by a two-thirds vote of the membership of each house of the Legislature. This proposed constitutional revision eliminates the requirement that a general law repealing a court rule pass by a two-thirds vote of each house, thereby providing that the Legislature may repeal a rule of court by a general law approved by a majority vote of each house of the Legislature that expresses the policy behind the repeal. The court could readopt the rule in conformity with the public policy expressed by the Legislature, but if the Legislature determines that a rule has been readopted and repeals the readopted rule, this proposed revision prohibits the court from further readopting the repealed rule without the Legislature’s prior approval. Under current law, rules of the judicial nominating commissions and the Judicial Qualifications Commission may be repealed by general law enacted by a majority vote of the membership of each house of the Legislature. Under this proposed revision, a vote to repeal those rules is changed to repeal by general law enacted by a majority vote of the legislators present. Under current law, the Governor appoints a justice of the Supreme Court from a list of nominees provided by a judicial nominating commission, and appointments by the Governor are not subject to confirmation. This revision requires Senate confirmation of a justice of the Supreme Court before the appointee can take office. If the Senate votes not to confirm the appointment, the judicial nominating commission must reconvene and may not renominate any person whose prior appointment to fill the same vacancy was not confirmed by the Senate. For the purpose of confirmation, the Senate may meet at any time. If the Senate fails to vote on the appointment of a justice within 90 days, the justice will be deemed confirmed and will take office. The Judicial Qualifications Commission is an independent commission created by the State Constitution to investigate and prosecute before the Florida Supreme Court alleged misconduct by a justice or judge. Currently under the constitution, commission proceedings are confidential until formal charges are filed by the investigative panel of the commission. Once formal charges are filed, the formal charges and all further proceedings of the commission are public. Currently, the constitution authorizes the House of Representatives to impeach a justice or judge. Further, the Speaker of the House of Representatives may request, and the Judicial Qualifications Commission must make available, all information in the commission’s possession for use in deciding whether to impeach a justice or judge. This proposed revision requires the commission to make all of its files available to the Speaker of the House of Representatives but provides that such files would remain confidential during any investigation by the House of Representatives and until such information is used in the pursuit of an impeachment of a justice or judge. This revision also removes the power of the Governor to request files of the Judicial Qualifications Commission to conform to a prior constitutional change. This revision also makes technical and clarifying additions and deletions relating to the selection of chief judges of a circuit and relating to the Judicial Qualifications Commission, and makes other nonsubstantive conforming and technical changes in the judicial article of the constitution.

(HJR 7111)


 

State Government Revenue Limitation
Amendment 3
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 42.4% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Budgets | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
This proposed amendment to the State Constitution replaces the existing state revenue limitation based on Florida personal income growth with a new state revenue limitation based on inflation and population changes. Under the amendment, state revenues, as defined in the amendment, collected in excess of the revenue limitation must be deposited into the budget stabilization fund until the fund reaches its maximum balance, and thereafter shall be used for the support and maintenance of public schools by reducing the minimum financial effort required from school districts for participation in a state-funded education finance program, or, if the minimum financial effort is no longer required, returned to the taxpayers. The Legislature may increase the state revenue limitation through a bill approved by a super majority vote of each house of the Legislature. The Legislature may also submit a proposed increase in the state revenue limitation to the voters. The Legislature must implement this proposed amendment by general law. The amendment will take effect upon approval by the electors and will first apply to the 2014-2015 state fiscal year. (SJR 958)

 

State Operated Lotteries
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1986

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 64.0%)

Topic Areas:
Education: PreK-12 | Gambling & Lotteries

Summary: Click for Summary
The Amendment authorizes the state to operate lotteries. It provides a severance clause to retain the above provision should any subsection or subsections be held unconstitutional because of more than one subject. The schedule provides, unless changed by law, for the lotteries to be known as the Florida Education Lotteries and for the net proceeds derived to be deposited in a state trust fund, designated State Education Lotteries Trust Fund, for appropriation by the Legislature.

 

State Planning and Budget Process
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

2006

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 59.8%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing amendments to the State Constitution to limit the amount of nonrecurring general revenue which may be appropriated for recurring purposes in any fiscal year to 3 percent of the total general revenue funds estimated to be available, unless otherwise approved by a three-fifths vote of the Legislature; to establish a Joint Legislative Budget Commission, which shall issue long-range financial outlooks; to provide for limited adjustments in the state budget without the concurrence of the full Legislature, as provided by general law; to reduce the number of times trust funds are automatically terminated; to require the preparation and biennial revision of a long-range state planning document; and to establish a Government Efficiency Task Force and specify its duties.

 

Structure, Operation, and Election Requirements of State and Local Government Amendment
Constitutional Revision 5
Election:
General

2018

Type:
Constitutional Revision Commission

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 63.1%)

Topic Areas:
Elections | Legislatures | Local Government

Summary: Click for Summary
The measure adds a state Department of Veterans Affairs, creates a state office of Domestic Security and Counter-Terrorism, requires the legislature to convene sessions on the second Tuesday of January in even-numbered years, and prohibits counties from abolishing certain local offices such as sheriffs, tax collectors, property appraisers, supervisor of elections, and clerk of the circuit court. It also requires that those positions be elected positions.

 

Sunshine Amendment
Constitutionial Amendment 1
Election:
General

1976

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: Not available.)

Topic Areas:
Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Finance | Legislatures | Local Government | State Government

Summary: Click for Summary
Requires full public disclosure by state and county elected officials and candidates.

[CA]


 

Supreme Court Opinion on Proposed Initiatives
Constitutional Amendment 4
Election:
General

1986

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 72.4%)

Topic Areas:
Elections-Initiative Process | Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Provides that the Attorney General shall, as directed by general law, request the Supreme Court to render an expeditious advisory opinion as to the validity of an initiative petition which proposes an amendment to the State Constitution, and requires the Supreme Court to issue an advisory opinion upon request of the Attorney General, and by rule to permit interested persons to be heard on the questions presented by the Attorney General.

 

Tangible Personal Property Tax Exemption
Amendment 10
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 45.5% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Local Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to: (1) Provide an exemption from ad valorem taxes levied by counties, municipalities, school districts, and other local governments on tangible personal property if the assessed value of an owner’s tangible personal property is greater than $25,000 but less than $50,000. This new exemption, if approved by the voters, will take effect on January 1, 2013, and apply to the 2013 tax roll and subsequent tax rolls. (2) Authorize a county or municipality for the purpose of its respective levy, and as provided by general law, to provide tangible personal property tax exemptions by ordinance. This is in addition to other statewide tangible personal property tax exemptions provided by the Constitution and this amendment.

 

Tax Exemption
Constitutional Amendment 1b
Election:
Primary

1980

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 75.0%)

Topic Areas:
Energy & Electric Utilities | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Considered at the October 7, 1980 Primary Runoff Election.

Proposing an amendment to Section 3 of Article VII and the creation of Section 18 of Article XII of the State Constitution to authorize, for purposes of ad valorem taxation, an exemption for a renewable energy source device and real property on which a renewable energy source device is installed.


 

Tax Exemption for Permanently and Totally Disabled First Responders Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

2016

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 83.8% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposing an amendment to the State Constitution to authorize a first responder, who is totally and permanently disabled as a result of injuries sustained in the line of duty, to receive relief from ad valorem taxes assessed on homestead property, if authorized by general law

 

Tax Limitation: Should Two-Thirds Vote be Required for New Constitutionally-Imposed State Taxes/Fees?
Constitutional Amendment 1
Election:
General

1996

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 69.3%)

Topic Areas:
Elections-Initiative Process | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Prohibits imposition of new state taxes or fees on or after November 8, 1994 by constitutional amendment unless approved by two-thirds of the voters voting in the election. Defines “new State taxes or fees” as revenue subject to appropriation by State Legislature, which tax or fee is not in effect on November 7, 1994. Applies to proposed State tax and fee amendments on November 8, 1994 ballot and those on later ballots.

 

Taxation and Budget Reform Commission
Constitutional Amendment 6
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 57.8%)

Topic Areas:
Budgets | State Government | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Transfers authority to review matters relating to state and local taxation and the budgetary process from the Constitution Revision Commission to a newly created Taxation and Budget Reform Commission to be established in 1990 and every 10 years therafter. The new commission will issue a report and it may propose statutory changes to the Legislature, and submit proposed constitutional changes to the voters.

 

Taxpayers’ Bill of Rights
Constitutional Amendment 5
Election:
General

1992

Type:
Other

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 90.0%)

Topic Areas:
Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
This question was placed on the ballot by Florida’s Constitutional Revision Commission.

Requiring the legislature to adopt a Taxpayers’ Bill of Rights in clear and concise language that sets forth taxpayers’ rights and responsibilities and government’s responsibilities to deal fairly with taxpayers under the laws of this state.


 

Terms of Office for Trial Court Judges
Constitutional Amendment 7
Election:
General

1988

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 37.9%)

Topic Areas:
Judiciary

Summary: Click for Summary
Increases terms of county court judges from four to six years.

 

The Medical Liability Claimant’s Compensation Amendment
Constitutional Amendment 3
Election:
General

2004

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 63.6%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Health

Summary: Click for Summary
Proposes to amend the State Constitution to provide that an injured claimant who enters into a contingency fee agreement with an attorney in a claim for medical liability is entitled to no less than 70% of the first $250,000.00 in all damages received by the claimant, and 90% of damages in excess of $250,000.00, exclusive of reasonable and customary costs and regardless of the number of defendants. This amendment is intended to be self-executing.

 

Three Day Waiting Period for Handgun Purchases
Constitutional Amendment 2
Election:
General

1990

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 84.5%)

Topic Areas:
Civil & Constitutional Law | Criminal Justice

Summary: Click for Summary
Requires a mandatory period of three days, excluding weekends and legal holidays, between the purchase and delivery at retail of any handgun. Defines the terms “purchase” and “handgun” and requires the Legislature to enact legislation to provide a felony penalty for violations. (SJR 43)

 

Use of Marijuana for Certain Medical Conditions
Amendment 2
Election:
General

2014

Type:
Initiative

Status: Fail (Yes votes: 57.6% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Drug/Alcohol/Tobacco Policy

Summary: Click for Summary
Allows the medical use of marijuana for individuals with debilitating diseases as determined by a licensed Florida physician. Allows caregivers to assist patients’medical use of marijuana. The Department of Health shall register and regulate centers that produce and distribute marijuana for medical purposes and shall issue identification cards to patients and caregivers. Applies only to Florida law. Does not authorize violations of federal law or any non-medical use, possession or production of marijuana.

 

Veterans Disabled Due to Combat Injury; Homestead Property Tax Discount
Amendment 2
Election:
General

2012

Type:
Legislative Referendum

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 63.3% (Unofficial))

Topic Areas:
Military & Veterans Affairs | Tax & Revenue

Summary: Click for Summary
Senate Joint Resolution (SJR) 592 proposes an amendment to Article VII, section 6 of the Florida Constitution, to allow partially or totally disabled veterans who were not Florida residents at the time of entering military service to qualify for the combat-related disabled veterans’ ad valorem tax discount on homestead property. (SJR 592)

 

Voluntary Universal Pre-Kindergarten Education
Constitutional Amendment 8
Election:
General

2002

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 58.5%)

Topic Areas:
Education: PreK-12

Summary: Click for Summary
Every four-year-old child in Florida shall be offered a high quality pre-kindergarten learning opportunity by the state no later than the 2005 school year. This voluntary early childhood development and education program shall be established according to high quality standards and shall be free for all Florida four-year-olds without taking away funds used for existing education, health and development programs.

 

Water and Land Conservation – Dedicates funds to acquire and restore Florida conservation and recreation lands
Amendment 1
Election:
General

2014

Type:
Initiative

Status: Pass (Yes votes: 74.9% unofficial)

Topic Areas:
Environmental Protection | Natural Resources

Summary: Click for Summary
Funds the Land Acquisition Trust Fund to acquire, restore, improve, and manage conservation lands including wetlands and forests; fish and wildlife habitat; lands protecting water resources and drinking water sources, including the Everglades, and the water quality of rivers, lakes, and streams; beaches and shores; outdoor recreational lands; working farms and ranches; and historic or geologic sites, by dedicating 33 percent of net revenues from the existing excise tax on documents for 20 years.

 

 

Statewide Ballot Measures Database


11/7/2018

Image of search key on a keyboard.NCSL’s Statewide Ballot Measures Database includes all statewide ballot measures in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, starting over a century ago. New measures are added as they are certified and identified by NCSL staff. Results are updated soon after election night; each entry is then updated with “pass” or “fail.”

You can search legislation for each year from the late 1800s through 2017 by state, topic, keyword, year, status or primary sponsor. Topics include: Abortion, Agriculture, Animal Rights/Hunting & Fishing, Arts & Culture, Banking & Financial Services, Bond Measures, Budgets, Business & Commerce, Civil & Constitutional Law, Criminal Justice, Drug/Alcohol/Tobacco Policy, Economic Development, Education: Higher Ed, Education: PreK-12, Elections, Elections-Initiative Process, Energy & Electric Utilities, Environmental Protection, Ethics/Lobbying/Campaign Finance, Federal Government, Gambling & Lotteries, Health, Human Services, Insurance, Judiciary, Juvenile Justice, Labor & Employment, Land Use/Property Rights, Legislatures, Local Government, Military & Veterans Affairs, Natural Resources, Redistricting, State Government, State-Tribal Relations, Tax & Revenue, Telecom & Info Technology, Term Limits, and Transportation.

This database is provided for informational purposes only. For details on ballot measures, please contact the appropriate state’s election officials.

For more information about the database, contact NCSL’s elections team via email or at 303-364-7700.

 

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